> politics of prison > facts & statistics
- 133 per 100,000 adult population.
- While this number reflects
a decrease in incarceration rates for eight years in a row, it still
represents an increase over the last decade.
- The number of Aboriginal prisoners, women in prison and youth in detention continues to increase.
On any given day in Canada during 2001-2002...
- An average of 155 000 individuals were under the supervision of Correctional Service Agencies
in Canada. (a 2% increase from 2000-2001).
- There were approximately 32 000 adults prisoners in custody. These totals
include both federal and provincial prisoners.
Deaths in the Criminal Justice System
- For the 2001/02 period 169 prisoners
died while under supervision of the criminal justice system. Of the 127
federal prisoners who died, 50 of those deaths were in custody. 41 of the
42 provincial/territorial prisoner deaths were in custody.
'Out of custody deaths' are deaths attributed to prisoners who are serving
out the remainder of their sentence in the community, whether it's on day
parole, full parole, statutory release or "compassionate release".
- Correctional service expenditures reached $2.6 billion for the year.
This figure does not include policing or court costs which bring the total expenditures up to more than $10 billion
for the year.
- Cost of incarcerating a Federal male prisoner: $199.57 per prisoner/per day
- Cost of incarcerating a Federal female prisoner: $316.34 per prisoner/per day
- Cost of incarcerating a provincial prisoner: $114.14 per prisoner/per day
- The cost of alternatives such as probation, bail supervision and community supervision
range from $5-$25/day.
Source: juristat canada 2001/2002
Includes persons awaiting trial and immigration holds.
- 36% of all prisoners in provincial jails were there on remand.
- On any given day there were 6,700 individuals in remand. This is up 27% over 95/96.
- These increases in remand population have occurred despite a 7% decrease
in the number of adults charged since 95/96. The net effect has been an
increase in the resources required to administer these spaces.
- 2% of the total canadian adult population - (1996 Census)
- 17% of federal prisoner population
- 20% of provincial prisoner population
- 27% of female prisoner population
Statistics vary from region to region
- In Saskatchewan, Aboriginal adults are incarcerated at 35 times
the rate of non-aboriginals, where they make up 77% of the total prisoner population
- in the Yukon -- Aboriginal adults make up 76% of the total prisoner population
- in Manitoba -- Aboriginal adults make up 69% of the total prisoner population
- in British Columbia -- Aboriginal adults make up 21% of the total prisoner population
These high rates of imprisonment reamin despite changes made by parliament to the sentencing
provisions of the criminal code. These changes to the criminal
code were designed to address the issue of overrepresentation of First
Nations within the sentenced prison population. s.718.2(e) of the criminal
code provides that "all available sanctions other than imprisonment that are reasonable in the circumstances
should be considered for all offenders, with particular attention to
the circumstances of Aboriginal offenders."
- 5% of the total canadian adult population - (1996 Census).
- 25% of youth held on remand
- 22% of total youth prisoner population
- 17% of probation admissions
Female Aboriginal Youth
Male Aboriginal Youth
- 32% of remand prisoner population
- 25% of youth in prison
- 23% of remand prisoner population
- 21% of youth in prison
- Provincial: 9% of all admissions to custody were female. (1999-2000)
- Federal: 5% of all admissions to custody were female. (1999-2000)
- Youth represented 21% of all persons charged by police in 1999 and 21% of these
charges were against females.
- On any given day in 2001, there were 820 youth in remand, 1200 in secure custody,
and 1400 in open custody (residential centres/group homes).
- The incarceration rate in 2001-2002 was 135 per 100 000 youth population
- Canada imprisons youth at rate 10-15 times that of the rate of European countries.
- Property crimes accounted for the largest portion of charges against youth. 2/3 of these charges resulted in
- 23,215 youth were sentenced to a term of imprisonment in 1999.