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> politics of prison > facts & statistics
Juristat, Statistics Canada
Stats are all 2004/5, unless stated otherwise. Updated July 2007.
- (Canada-wide) 129 per 100,000 adult population.
- (BC only) 66 per 100,000 adult population.
- While the incarceration rate is dropping, the number of Aboriginal prisoners and women in
prison continues to increase.
- The largest increase in the provincial prisoner population has been
adults on remand awaiting trial.
- An average of 152 600 individuals were under the supervision of Correctional Service Agencies
in Canada, a slight decline of 1% from 2003/2004.
- There were approximately 32 100 adults prisoners in custody and 120,500 under supervision in the community. These totals
include both federal and provincial prisoners.
- 184 prisoners died while under the supervision of the criminal justice system.
- Of the
132 federal prisoners who died, 49 of those deaths were in custody and 83 were out
- 48 of the 52 provincial prisoner deaths were in custody.
- While the suicide rate amongst the prisoner population
continues to be higher than what you would find in the community, more
prisoners are dying from health related causes.
181 prisoners died while under the supervision of the criminal justice
- Of the 142 federal prisoners who died, 67 of those deaths were in
custody and 75 were out of custody.
- 36 of the 39 provincial prisoner deaths
were in custody.
'Out of custody deaths' are deaths attributed to prisoners who are serving
out the remainder of their sentence in the community, whether it's on day
parole, full parole, statutory release or "compassionate release".
- In 2004/2005, there were 190 prisons and jails across Canada,
of which 76 were under federal jurisdiction and 114 were under provincial/territorial jurisdiction (of these 114, only 16 are minimum security).
Correctional services expenditures totalled $2.8 billion in 2004/2005, up 2% in constant dollars from 2003/2004.
Custodial services (prisons) accounted for the largest proportion (71%) of the expenditures,
followed by community supervision services (14%),
headquarters and central services (14%), and National Parole Board and provincial parole boards (2%).
This figure does not include policing or court costs which bring the total expenditures up to more than $10 billion
for the year.
- Cost of incarcerating a Federal prisoner: $259.05 per prisoner/per day
- Cost of incarcerating a Federal female prisoner: $150,000-$250,000 per prisoner/per year
- Cost of incarcerating a Federal male prisoner: $87,665 per prisoner/per year
- Cost of incarcerating a provincial prisoner: $141.78: per prisoner/per day
- The cost of alternatives such as probation, bail supervision and community supervision
range from $5-$25/day.
- In 1981, the daily wage rate for a federal prisoner was $7.55 and a canteen basket cost $8.49.
- In 2007, the daily wage rate for a federal prisoner is $6.90 and that same canteen basket now costs $61.59.
- Conditional sentencing was
introduced in 1996 to provide judges with the option of allowing eligible provincial and territorial adults, sentenced
to a jail term of less than two years, to serve their sentence in the community with conditions.
Includes persons awaiting trial, who have not been convicted of a crime.
- Non-sentenced custody counts (e.g. remand and other temporary detention) represented half of all provincial/territorial
custodial counts, equivalent to the proportion of prisoners
in sentenced custody.
- Approximately 9,600 adults were held in remand awaiting trial or sentencing on any given day,
an increase of 5% from 2003/2004.
- On any given day BC had 900 prisoners on remand.
- The use of remand has increased 83%, from 5,300 to 9,600 adults, over the last decade (since 1995/96).
People who have been convicted of a crime and are serving time in custody (i.e. in a prison or jail).
- The number of federal prisoners
in sentenced custody on any given day declined over the past decade (since 1995/96) by 13%,
from 14,100 to 12,300.
- The number of prisoners
in provincial/territorial sentenced custody has declined by 31% over the past decade, from 14,200 to 9,800.
- Provincial prisoners (Canada-wide) in non-sentenced custody (remand) out number those
prisoners sentenced to a term of imprisonment.
- 3% of the total canadian adult population - (2001 Census)
- 22% of admissions to provincial/territorial sentenced custody
- 17% of admissions to federal prisons
- 21% of male prisoner population
- 30% of female prisoner population
- In Saskatchewan, Aboriginal adults are incarcerated at 35 times
the rate of non-aboriginals, where they make up 77% of the total prisoner population (10% of outside population)
- In the Yukon -- Aboriginal adults make up 74% of the total prisoner population (20% of outside population)
- In Manitoba -- Aboriginal adults make up 70% of the total prisoner population (11% of outside population)
- In Alberta -- Aboriginal adults make up 38% of the total prisoner population (4% of outside population)
- In Ontario -- Aboriginal adults make up 9% of the total prisoner population (1% of outside population)
- In British Columbia -- Aboriginal adults make up 20% of the total prisoner population (10% of outside population)
- Aboriginal women make up 30% of the female prisoner population
- In Saskatchewan, Aboriginal women account for 87% of all female admissions
- In Manitoba and the Yukon, Aboriginal women account for 83% of all female admissions
- In Alberta, Aboriginal women account for 54% of all female admissions
- In British Columbia, Aboriginal women account for 29% of all female admissions
These high rates of imprisonment remain despite changes made by parliament to the sentencing
provisions of the criminal code. These changes to the criminal
code were designed to address the issue of overrepresentation of First
Nations within the sentenced prison population. s.718.2(e) of the criminal
code provides that "all available sanctions other than imprisonment that are reasonable in the circumstances
should be considered for all offenders, with particular attention to
the circumstances of Aboriginal offenders."
- 5% of the total canadian adult population - (1996 Census).
- 25% of youth held on remand
- 22% of total youth prisoner population
- 17% of probation admissions
Female Aboriginal Youth
Male Aboriginal Youth
- 32% of remand prisoner population
- 25% of youth in prison
- 23% of remand prisoner population
- 21% of youth in prison
- Provincial: 10% of all admissions to custody were female.
- Federal: 5% of all admissions to custody were female.
- Remand: 11% of all admissions to custody were female.
- There were about 39,000 admissions to youth custody and community
correctional services (2004/2005, not all provinces reported).
- Youth make up 8% of Canada’s total population.
Youth represented 21% of all persons charged by police in 1999 and 21% of these
charges were against females.
- In 2004/5, about 450 young people on average were on deferred custody and
supervision - Deferred custody and supervision allows a young person to
serve a custody sentence in the community under a number of strict
conditions and is comparable to conditional sentence for adults. Any breach
of conditions may result in the young person being sent to custody.
- The average number of young people held on remand while awaiting trial or
sentencing about 800 on any given day in 2004/5.
- On any given day in 2004/5, there were about 800 youth in remand (awaiting traial or sentencing), 700 in secure custody,
and 600 in open custody (residential centres/group homes).
- On any given day in 2003/4, there were 470 youth in remand, 750 in secure custody,
and 620 in open custody (residential centres/group homes).
- The incarceration rate in 2004-5 was 83 per 100 000 youth population, 2003-2004 was 82 per 100 000.
- In 2004/5 about 21,200 young people were on probation.
- in 2004/5 the probation rate was 837 per 100,000 youth population.
- The YCJA gives the courts the discretion to impose adult sentences on youth and has
extended the group of youth who can receive adult sentences to include 14 and 15 year olds.
- Property crimes accounted for the largest portion of charges against youth. 2/3 of these charges resulted in
- 23,215 youth were sentenced to a term of imprisonment in 1999.
- Since 1993 there has been a 60% increase in the number of prisoners over 50
years of age and an 87% increase in the number of prisoners over the age of 65.
- At any given time (2004/5) there were approximately 400 federal prisoners aged 20 or
younger. 28% of these prisoners are aboriginal.