Chapter G1.         Much better than Tamoxifen and it's NATURAL!
     Why  should  women  have  to  compromise; i.e. reduce  their  risk of 
breast  cancer   but  increase  the  risk  of  uterine  cancer  and  blood
clots?  In  April  1998  headlines  tell  women  at  high  risk for breast
cancer of  the  benefits  of  the drug tamoxifen in reducing breast cancer
risk.  However, one  study  does  not  a proof make and what are the  long
term side-effects of tamoxifen?  Answer: 'we' do not know.  Let's  compare
tamoxifen with a natural preventer of breast cancer, 'XR':

                     Tamoxifen            'XR'
Reduces BC risk?     not proven        many studies 
                                       support BC prevention
Reduces death from      NO                 YES
Reduces symptoms of     NO                 YES
Inexpensive?            NO                 YES
Patented?               YES                NO

What is 'XR'.  It's a new wonder 'drug' called exercise:

             Women get 'EXERCISED' about Breast Cancer

One research report says beta-carotene helps to prevent cancer but another
report  claims that beta-carotene may increase cancer risk.  No wonder the
public is  becoming  cynical  about  medical  research  results.  In  1994
researchers  Leslie  Bernstein, et  al., of  the  University  of  Southern
California reported that:
   'young' (under age 41) women who exercised at least 3.8 hours/week
   ( consistently since  puberty  [menarche] ) reduced  their  breast 
   cancer  risk  by 58%.  The reduction in risk is 72% for exercisers
   who  are  also  moms  (i.e.  parous).  [3.8 hours/week is about 33
   minutes/day] (Physical  Exercise and Reduced Risk of Breast Cancer
   in Young Women, JNCI, 1994, 86:1403-1408)

The reduction  of  BC  risk  by 58% is relative to 'couch potatoes' (i.e.
women who do zero exercise).

Is this  report  credible?  'Believe  it  or  not', a  layman  only  need
need learn only 9 or 10 technical terms ('significance', 'relative risk',
'confounding', etc.) to read and  mostly  understand  a  report  such  as
this.  Here is  what  the  medical  journal  WOMEN'S  HEALTH ISSUES  said
about Bernstein's report:
   In  contrast, Bernstein  interviewed  subjects and obtained periodic
   lifetime  histories  of  physical  activities  and  then  classified 
   subjects  according  to  the  number  of  lifetime  hours  per  week
   spent  exercising.   Thus,  the  Bernstein  study  had  a  far  more
   comprehensive and quantitative measure of physical activity patterns
   than  the  other  studies, and  presented  convincing  evidence of a
   reduced  breast  cancer  risk  in  physically active women (Exercise
   in the Prevention and Treatment of Chronic Disorders, WOMEN'S HEALTH 
   ISSUES, Patricia A. Deuster, 1996; 6:320-331)

What  kinds  of  exercises  were  these  women  doing?    "racquet sports,
swimming, gymnastics, running/jogging,  or walking for exercise; workouts
at gyms; and participation in dance or exercise classes."

Any other health  benefits  from  physical  activity?  Bernstein, et al.,
inform us, "Data on the  health  benefits  of  physical activity continue
to   accumulate  as  physical  activity  appears  to  have  a  protective
effect  against  a  number  of  chronic  conditions,  including  coronary
heart disease, diabetes  mellitus,  osteoporosis, and  colon  cancer risk
(26-28), and  possibly,  as  suggested  by  recent evidence (29), against
endometrial cancer risk."

Any 'recent' confirmation  of  the  'Bernstein' results?  In May 1997 the
New England Journal of Medicine reported  results  from  a  Norway study:

     1. women  who  exercised at least four hours/week during leisure
        time have a 37 percent reduction in the risk of breast cancer
     2. risk of  breast cancer was lowest in lean women who exercised
        at least  four hours per  week  (72  percent reduced BC risk)
        (NEJM, Inger Thune (MD) et al., 1997, 336:1269-1275)

There  have  been  other  reports  supporting  reduced  BC  risk for high
exercisers.  Some reports  found  no  benefit.  So, should women exercise
and thus, be  confident  that  they  will  reduce  BC  risk?  In the same
issue  of  the  New  England  Journal  of  Medicine, respected researcher
Anne McTiernan (MD, PhD; Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle,
WA 98104-2092) wrote:

       How should the physician  answer  a  woman who asks whether she
    should exercise and whether it will  help  prevent  breast cancer?
    I recommend a resounding  "yes"  to  the  first question.  Regular
    physical activity  in women  reduces  overall  mortality  and  the 
    incidence of  coronary  heart disease, diabetes, mellitus, stroke,
    osteoporosis, obesity, and  disability,  and  it  also lessens the
    impact of such chronic ailments as arthritis and cognitive decline.
    With respect to whether exercise reduces the risk of breast cancer,
    however, too many questions remain for women and  their doctors to
    make informed decisions on whether, how, and how  much to exercise.

Not a ringing endorsement  with  respect  to  BC  prevention.  But women
should ask themselves, does  exercise  enhance  the immune   system  and
is a healthier immune  system  useful  in  preventing  breast cancer and
recovering from it?  I.E.  it  is  my  opinion  that Anne  McTiernan, is
being a bit too 'conservative'.

The  godfather  of  the  aerobics  movement, Dr.  Kenneth  Cooper,  says 
says in his 'new' book  (The  Antioxidant Revolution) that he, like many
others, primarily  exercise  for  the mood enhancing effect.  Dr. Cooper
makes the important point that over exercising is also a  danger to good
health.   Dr.  Cooper  also  asserts  that  the  best  anti-oxidant  is:

Cynics and defeatists  say  there  is  little  or  nothing one can to do 
prevent cancer. Research is exposing these people as being ill informed.

(Were Bernstein, et al., confident of  their  58%  BC risk reduction via
via exercise?  Yes.  When  researchers  are  at  least  95% confident of
a finding, it is called 'significant'.  They found the  relative risk of
breast  cancer  for  women  who  averaged  at  least  3.8/hours exercise 
per week was .42(0.27,0.64);i.e. they were 95%  confident  that the risk
reduction was somewhere between 36% and 73%)

What kind of exercise should you do?
    You require exercise in three different areas:
    1. aerobic
    2. strength
    3. flexibility (e.g. stretching)

What about women who 'have no time' for exercise?
     Some  people  spend  more time commuting to and from their exercise
place than actually exercising.  But, do not despair,  since 'rebounders
come to the rescue'.  A rebounder is  a mini-trampoline (about 40 inches
wide); it has almost all
the  benefits  of  jogging  without  the  jarring effect on your joints.
Nothing is 100% safe, so ask  your  medical  advisor  if  he/she  thinks
rebounding is safe for you.  Do a  jogging  motion  for  maximum aerobic
effect; when you first  start  rebounding, just  do  a  few  minutes  of
exercise.  Slowly build  up  the  duration  of  your daily  session.  If
you do the rebounding  shortly  after arising in the morning  (and after
a few warm-up exercises)  you've  eliminated  an  extra shower  (likely)
since you were going to shower anyhow; and  there  is no commute  if you
have a rebounder in your home.  A good  new  rebounder can be  purchased
for under $200; good used ones (turn it over; if any  rusty  springs, do
not buy it) can be bought for $40-$80.

Consider hiring your own personal trainer.  

Serious women athletes should read Optimum Sports Nutrition (Dr. Michael
Colgan).  These are athletes doing  much  more  than 33 minutes per day.
If you have been inactive, start any  exercise  program  very  gradually
since avoiding injury  is  of  first importance.  Have a checkup by your
doctor before starting your exercise program.

'Postscript': Women  with  ' rounded ' shoulders have an alternative to
              breast implants
Many women are concerned about BL (not bacon and lettuce sandwiches but
their Bust Line).  'Rounded'  shoulders  is not uncommon and definitely
impairs a woman's BL.  There are a number  of  exercises that can bring
your shoulders back to a square  position and thus, improve your BL and
your health.  If you hire a personal trainer for a few sessions to show
you the exercises, it will be much cheaper & should  be much safer than
an 'idiotic' breast  implant  procedure.  (Men will also look better if
they can 'square' their  shoulders; but I can  not  promise  them  more
Previous articles by  Brent Rooney on breast cancer prevention:

No Breast Cancer for My Daughter     How to Reduce the Risk
   (July/August 1995 ALIVE magazine), pp. 17-18
An Early First Birth for Breast Cancer Prevention
   (April 1997 ALIVE magazine), pp. 35-36
ALIVE magazine has a readership exceeding 500,000

    see EXERCISE in Chapter R
copyright Brent Rooney ( [email protected] )