35. It is worth noting that Quebec has an extensive program of cultural exchanges, financed by all taxpayers including anglophones, with France; there is no comparable program with anglophone countries. When the Quebec-Louisiana committees were established, pursuant to the agreement mentioned in footnote 29, Louisiana appointed members from both the anglo-ethnic and franco-ethnic cultures; whereas Quebec appointed only persons of franco-ethnic origins. Quebecois frequently display a contradictory attitude whereby they condemn immigrants for not adopting French, yet rarely really welcome the francophone immigrant into the bosom of society; an attitude, however, which is changing as Quebec becomes more open to the world. Another aspect of the problem of minorities within minorities: At a conference in Winnipeg I asked the Parti Quebecois leader, Rene Levesque, whether the Ontario-border Quebec constituencies would appropriately be allowed to option for retention in Canada in the event of a province-wide vote for separation. He replied with the "Westmount is not a nation" slogan, which is not at all to the more specific and rational point of the question.

36. See (Towards)"A General Theory of International Organizations", International Associations, 1961, 88, and Facilitation Problems, op. cit. fn. 1, para 2.

37. The Sixties opened with James Coyne's attack on the distortion introduced to the Canadian economy by excessive reliance on American investment operations. (He also criticized the inflationary cycle, and the latter point alone would merit consideration by Trudeau for Coyne to be appointed a Senator!). For his pains, Coyne was sacked from the job of Governor of the Bank of Canada by a government which had been elected on the platform of Canadian self-development. He was also virtually unanimously criticised by the academic economists, schooled in the large-market environment and assumptions of London, Harvard, etc.
Ten years too late, the academic economists came more around to the views expressed by Coyne, and Canada Can Thrive, etc.

38. At a time when the academic and professional market-place is tight (e.g., 1971) Canada places no barriers on the immigration of Americans, yet Canadians are severely restricted in the same circumstances by US immigration policies. The self-punishing policies of Canada towards its own creative element have been referred to above (fn. 14) and perhaps can be expanded upon at this point: the initiator of the matter mentioned in the last paragraph of footnote 7 shortly thereafter received a Canada Council grant; the victim was denied one (relating to fn. 29.) At the same time, the Council gave a grant for a study of Southwest US Indians, and another to an American academic who ten years earlier had sneered at Canada as "a colony of the Queen." It is noticeable that the nationalists of the University of Toronto have not been quoted, to my knowledge, with respect to the de-Canadianization of their own departments. Another of the multitude of examples of Canadian idiocy is that for a decade, since the point was made by the present author and others, Canada has continued to permit unrestricted entry of US publications (which is meritable), without insisting that the US reciprocate. In 1971, the Canadian government finally surfaced the Copyright Act as one of the irritants in Canadian-American relations.

39. See pages 73-74 of Facilitation Problems. The case of the INGO employee, or others engaged in international UNESCO-type activities, is quite different from that of the professional who makes a long-term emigration, while refusing to enter into the citizenship responsibilities of the Jurisdiction to which he moves, and depriving that Jurisdiction's professionals from equitable employment. (The professional is not to blame, of course; the responsibility rests with policy-makers.) The case of the multinational corporation requires multi-national reciprocity; if parent-state-citizenship employees are permitted to move to subsidiary-host states, then citizens of the latter should have the opportunity to as freely work in the parent-state, at least so far as the policy of the corporate parent-state is concerned.

40. The question of state jurisdiction and corporate entity was discussed in "The Problem of Political and Religious INGO", Facilitation Problems at 23, and passim. It was probed more deeply in the third (unpublished) manuscript of the trilogy referred to in the Preface of that book; and put in hortatory terms respecting INGO's in Testimony to the Senate Committee..., State Library, Albany, 1959.

41. Diagram showing
 continuum between
 different levels of unity in government U = Pure unitary, I0 = international organization, C = confederation, F = federation, Q = quasi-federal or quasi-unitary. The transition is reversible; and systems in one position could join others (the case of C doing so would be nullified by the right of its internal components to withdraw), e.g., Fl can join another F so long as there is compatibility of powers in the interlocking systems, and delegation of powers is accepted by the constitution of Fl. The result would be multi-level federalism.

42. Canada Can Thrive, chapter 9; Federal Government, chapter 1.

43. Article 240 of the EEC treaty says "This treaty shall be concluded for an unlimited period." On the other hand, if the members retain sovereignty, they are at liberty to denounce it.

44. Which sometimes takes place through speeches indirectly aimed at the other side. If a breach of the Official Secrets Act, it must be a very trivial one: in 1964 George Ball gave a speech which irritated Ottawa, even the continentalists. The then deputy minister of Industry asked me to draft a counterpoint. I drafted one strong but diplomatic speech for the minister to give to an American audience and another for a Canadian audience. They were never used. They read now as though they were issued in Ottawa in 1971.

45. Or achieve classic confederalism ("association") with Canada; or singular independence. The withdrawal of Quebec would, of course, divide the Maritime provinces from the rest of Canada, and the parts would probably join the United States.

45b. In recent years, an increasing number of Canadians have voiced the concerns expressed ten years ago in Canada Can Thrive; and the Trudeau government has made surface gestures of autonomy taking initiative in furthering contacts with China and the Soviet Union. The protest against the erosion of Canada has had little immediate effect, however. A furore in 1968-1970 against the de-Canadianization of the professoriat did not prevent a further decline during 70-71 academic year ("Fewer of faculty Canadian", Vancouver Sun, 15 Dec. 71).

46. I amused myself with respect to the "splitting-up of the superpowers" (though not inspired by de Gaulle) in a speech which suggested Canadians "get out of their inferiority complex and start thinking big, bold, brassy thoughts"; see L. Lee, "Ask Northern U.S. to Join Us, Suggests U of W Professor", Winnipeg Free Press, 28 October 1996. I am sure I said "border states". In any event, AP did not think it a joke item for their wires, judging by the US papers I saw at that time.

47. There can also be conferences of the member-state level alone. They may gather simply to compare techniques relating to their sphere of jurisdiction. If they gather to discuss the affairs of the other sphere, they tend to challenge the latter's authority by implication.

48. Canada Can Thrive proposed the structuring of Canada into "about thirty" micro-regions. At that time, this would have meant units of .6 million; now, .7 million (P-O). New Brunswick has integrated many municipal functions to the provincial level. Hawaii structure is similar, with four counties and a state government performing functions usually considered municipal.

49. Success goes to those with the will to succeed and some ability to balance one superpower against another. On the former, see "Let's Determine Our Own Destiny", Weekend, 24 May 1969 (which drew not a single comment to the author, despite nationwide newspaper distribution). On the latter, note Trudeau's toast to Kosygin at the state dinner of October 1971: "Canada and Canadians want very much to be able to look to the North, as they long have looked to the South, and see friends in each direction." They could also watch for ICBMs in both directions, no doubt. See 10.

50. See page 79.

51. The direct satellite-individual receiver was described as "soon" to come, in Canada Can Thrive (p.52). Economic rather than technical problems have held it back. See the note on timetables in chapter one! I join company with Bagrit, Age of Automation, which said that by 1974 the normal computer would be no bigger than a pack of cigarettes.

52. W. Schramm, Mass Media and National Development, 1964. The expressions quoted are section headings.

53. J. Haney, E. Ullmer, Educational Media and the Teacher, (Wm. C. Brown), 1970.

54. For the use of media as links between small bands of Indians in British Columbia, see G. Martin, M.P. Hindley, "A Radio and Visual Educational Network", Ekistics, October 1970. By contrast, when the Canadian member of the "counter-culture" uses his VTR to slavishly imitate the content-orientations of his American counterpart, he is part of the process of continentalization rather than a contributor to the solution of specifically Canadian minority problems.

55. Storage of digitalized visual materials is costly, but the cost per bit is rapidly declining.

56. The fracturing of the periodical press into numerous magazines and scholarly journals servicing specialized audiences gives some credence to the suggestion that communications, in one dimension, are becoming "decentralized" at the same time "centralization" proceeds in other dimensions (e.g., the city newspaper).

57. See the relationship of horseback and county seats, p. 48.

58. M. McLuhan, Q. Fiore, War and Peace in the Global Village, 1968, p. 26.

59. Canada Can Thrive evidences a heavy emphasis on the role of transportation, and makes some specific proposals for national development in that respect not only for the populated border area but also for what has since been called the mid-Canada corridor.

60. The significance of the stirrup was pointed out by L. White, Medieval Technology and Social Change, as cited in McLuhan, Fiore War and Peace in the Global Village.

61. M. Lund, "Noisy Wonders of Winter Wonderland", Ski, October 1971. Note that the ATV is feasible in the North American West but not in a densely cultivated patchwork like the greater portion of Europe.

62. B. Foster, "Crowds and Crowds", Wildlife Review, Autumn 1971.

63. Quote from the APSA paper cited in note 29.

64. See a current edition of the Yearbook of International Organizations published by the Union of International Associations, Brussels. The status of some such INGOs has secured them quasi-diplomatic privileges, as portrayed in Rodgers, "Headquarters Agreement of the IAEA", British Yearbook of International Law, 1956, p. 391 (and cited in the Britannica yearbook), and in Facilitation Problems.

65. Pages 6, 25, 28, 51, and 80 discuss values.

66. It is as well to remember that major effects can arise from seemingly minor, unnoticed causes. It may be that the elite of the Roman empire was decimated by lead poisoning in their utensils long before their enemies were able to make headway. (The preacher's explanation for the downfall of civilizations - sexuality - is false; England under Elizabeth and Melbourne, two periods of civic vigour, was not noted for the prudery of its elite.) Some dominant species of past ages have been wiped out by relatively minor changes in the environment. See p. 65.

67. After years of increasingly homogenous fashion, the dictated styles of the opening Seventies failed to command the usual parrot response. In the realm of female fashion, Summer 1971 saw women arrayed in everything from "hot pants" and micro-skirt, through midi to ankle length dress; giving each woman the opportunity to wear dress or suit in accordance with her personal comfort and preference.

68. Rodgers, "What is the liberal's challenge?", Liberal's Challenge, (Boston), March-April 1957

69. P. E. and B. R. Alyea, Fairhope, 1956.

70. The findings of 1966-1968 research conducted by the author and financed from grants by the University of South Alabama and the Lincoln Foundation. The research involved the classic social science dilemma of affecting consciousness merely by asking questions, and the publication in the community of research results would have even more affected it, as real-estate operators cast covetous eyes at colony lands. The professional interest to publish must at times be tempered by the conscience of the researcher, and this brief mention is the only use to which the study has been put in published form. A narrower aspect of the colony's philosophy is reflected in municipal land ownership. "When land changes in value through rezoning, the added value of the land belongs to the community, not the developer..." (S. Green, quoted in "Green proposals would halt land speculation by rezoning," Winnipeg Tribune, 25 April 1969).

71. One of the mechanisms of the animal kingdom is incest. It is a characteristic of incest that it rapidly brings out genetic mutations presenting the results to the test of Nature (the results are usually detrimental but evolution proceeds from the few which are not). Detrimental mutations are quickly eliminated by the predator and climate. By escaping these immediate constraints of Nature, Man has been fostering his detrimental mutations, producing a population with growing hereditary dysfunction, from the perspective of the historic natural environment.

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